It is said that citizen journalism is changing media landscape while including voices of people who used to be silent. Moreover, it is said that news concept itself is changing and that news can be considered as “a form of collective thinking” as Hong Eun-taek OhMyNews’ editor in Chief says. But, to which extent is this true?

    When we ask who owns the platforms that allow people making and publishing news, IT Corporation brands appear in the answer. In fact, they not only give the platform for citizen journalism development but they had also bought traditional media. So IT Corporations are placed in the media role or at least in between traditional media and their former captive audiences.

    More and more questions need to be answered in trying to understand this changing environment

    Citizen Journalism (former Audience?)
    IT Corporations
    Traditional Media
    Changing Media Landscape
    Who make the news?
    Content producers
    Collect/Aggregate news made by traditional media and people
    Content producers
    New actors. Traditional Media including content produced by people.
    Who owns the media?
    New actors. IT Corporations gaining power.
    Which content are they supporting?

    Which content are they censoring or is excluded?
    Own interests
    Requested by Governments (Own business interests)
    Own interests


    Traditional media have to share credibility with new legitimated voices.
    Which is the business model?

    Nobody knows.
    Where is the audience?
    Global, limited by Language/Local

    Who is the audience?

    Who distributes the content?
    IT Corporations
    Distributors/IT Corporations
    Traditional media are not always the owners of the new channels through wich content is distributed (internet, mobile phones). IT Corporations own them.

    Which kind of news applications are IT companies developing?
    • Consumer oriented news: aggregators; TV channel content based on Google searches
    • Community choice: Digg
    • Reddit "giving editorial control to the people"
    • is a service of Netscape Communications and Weblogs, Inc. and part of the AOL Network owned and operated by AOL, LLC, a Time-Warner company.
    • Newsvine "Founded by veterans of Disney, ESPN, and other media organizations, the mission of Newsvine is to bring together big and little media in a way which respects established journalism and empowers the individual at the same time."

    Michael Jackson (June, 2009)

    Britannica Blog: Newspapers & the Net Forum (April, 2008)
    Project for Excellence in Journalism's annual State of the News Media report 2008
    "Critics have tended to see technology democratizing the media and traditional journalism in decline. Audiences, they say, are fragmenting across new information sources, breaking the grip of media elites. Some people even advocate the notion of “The Long Tail,” the idea that, with the Web’s infinite potential for depth, millions of niche markets could be bigger than the old mass market dominated by large companies and producers.1
    The reality, increasingly, appears more complex. Looking closely, a clear case for democratization is harder to make. Even with so many new sources, more people now consume what old-media newsrooms produce, particularly from print, than before. Online, for instance, the top 10 news Web sites, drawing mostly from old brands, are more of an oligarchy, commanding a larger share of audience than they did in the legacy media. The verdict on citizen media for now suggests limitations. And research shows blogs and public affairs Web sites attract a smaller audience than expected and are produced by people with even more elite backgrounds than journalists. (...) The crisis in journalism, in other words, may not strictly be loss of audience. It may, more fundamentally, be the decoupling of news and advertising."

    Time's 50 Coolest Websites 2006. News and Information. The Web's best war correspondent, a snarky sports blog, the pioneers of "social news" more
    Time's Person of the Year: You. Yes, you. You control the Information Age. Welcome to your world. Dec. 25, 2006 Vol. 167 No. 51
    Future of Media Report July 2006 (pdf)
    The future of media report 2007 (pdf) Future exploration network
    The future of media report commentary at - by Michael Pick and Robin Good

    JupiterResearch: Content Producers Need Intermediaries to Succeed Online Media Daily Aug 28, 2007

    Researching media, democracy and participation. The intellectual work of the 2006 European media and communication doctoral summer school,’
    "Converging technologies are transforming the way we communicate and consume different media. All of our communication and entertainment needs can now be served through a personalised virtual homepage. And this homepage is accessed through a unified broadband hub via our PC, TV or mobile."

    Encuesta online y telefónica entre los responsables de las ediciones web de 43 de los periódicos más importantes de América Latina.
    (investigación de Guillermo Franco y Julio César Guzmán, con el apoyo de Casa Editorial El Tiempo, propietaria de El Tiempo y, la Fundación Nuevo Periodismo Iberoamericano (Fnpi) y del Grupo de Diarios de América (GDA). Marzo, 2007.
    • El 74% de los medios planea integrar sus redacciones online e impresa
    • El 50% de los sitios web de periódicos en América Latina dice haber incorporado blogs.
    • El 56% de los medios dice que los ingresos de su sitio web son suficientes para financiar la propia operación; el 37% dice que los ingresos no son suficientes para financiar la operación o ni siquiera generan ingresos.
    • El 68% considera que los mecanismos que permiten generar contenido a los usuarios son una revolución para el periodismo. Pero el 30% cree que deben ser controlados para que no causen más daños que beneficios.

    Newspapers and the New Paradigm .Mohan Babu K. Ubiquity Volume 8, Issue 31 (August 7, 2007 - August 13, 2007)
    New media increases freedom but holds dangers, conference told 19-02-2007 (Paris) Unesco
    New Media Survey 2006. The Economist

    How news spreads in the digital age. Rich Gordon. Readership Institute. June 26, 2007

    Entrevista a Dan Gillmor. Periodismo participativo será una tendencia importante incluso en los países en desarrollo, por Guillermo Franco. El Tiempo. (Agosto 24 de 2007) "La amenaza al periodismo tradicional es más financiera que periodística, pues nuevas clases de compañías se están llevando los ingresos publicitarios. No estoy a favor de reemplazar el periodismo tradicional, porque siento que lo necesitamos. Pero creo que un ecosistema de medios más diverso es una buena cosa, especialmente para la audiencia."

    WAN Moscu 2006

    Traditional Media and Citizen Journalism-User/Audience's Content- fitting together

    Or not!

    AFP reporters banned from using Wikipedia and Facebook as sources (January, 17, 2008)

    Japan: digital media and publishing don’t merge, they separate (The Editors Weblog, Nov, 28, 2006) via Boletín MMLab

    Ad Campaing from journal Estado of Brazil against blogs (by Mirá) 2007

    Authors@Google: Andrew Keen. Author of The Cult of the Amateur: How today's Internet is killing our culture

    Traditional Media & New Media

    • CNN launches bureau on Second Life Hollywood reporter (October, 30, 2007)
    • NBC Universal/Apple dispute grows fierce NBC Universal calls iPod users 'thieves' 3 September 2007 MacWorld
    • Music site bought by CBS (BBC May 30, 2007) connects users who share the same music tastes) Social music site has been bought by US media giant CBS Corporation for $280m (£140m), the largest-ever UK Web 2.0 acquisition.
    • Pandora restricted: (...) "We are deeply, deeply sorry to say that due to licensing constraints, we can no longer allow access to Pandora for most listeners located outside of the U.S. We will continue to work diligently to realize the vision of a truly global Pandora, but for the time being we are required to restrict its use. We are very sad to have to do this, but there is no other alternative." (...)
    • Adinet TV: Telecom + TV Stations (Uruguay) TV from Uruguay on Internet VTV Uruguay online through Jump TV
    • JumpTV is a pioneer in the delivery of international television over the Internet. With over 230 channels from 65+ countries, JumpTV delivers its subscribers full-screen news, sports and entertainment content on a real-time basis from all corners of the globe. JumpTV has subscribers from over 80 countries who view channels on the JumpTV online network via ordinary Internet connections on their home computers, laptops, Internet-enabled televisions and mobile phones.
    • Watch news program Noticias live on VTV Uruguay with JumpTV Learn more about Noticias and VTV: VTV Uruguay> VTV Uruguay program schedule> Article about Uruguayan Television Miniseries
    • Reuters at Second Life
    • mise sur la communauté des blogueurs Le 06.12.06 "Pour la direction de la chaîne, Internet est "au cœur de son dispositif", afin de faire de le "premier véritable site vidéo d'information internationale". L'ambition est au rendez-vous, les moyens le sont également : une trentaine de personne dont quinze "coordinateurs Internet" officieront autour de Stanislas Leridon, le directeur Internet et New Media. Ces coordinateurs seront plus particulièrement chargés de la hiérarchisation éditoriale et de l'animation du site, qui fera la part belle à la diffusion des sujets vidéo et autres contenus antenne sur le site, mais qui géreront également la participation des internautes.
    • Warner Bros and iTunes Warner Bros has announced plans to make content from its television library available for purchase and download on Apple's iTunes music store.
    • Fox to offer TV downloads on MySpace. By Greg Sandoval CNET (August 14, 2006) Fox Entertainment Group is planning to distribute movies and TV shows to consumers from the company's network of Internet sites, including
    • BBC Producer Kevin Anderson at Online Journalism News: (July 7, 2006) "Yet at the heart of participatory media is an honesty, a transparency, which is frequently lacking in traditional media. Responding to criticism is an integral part of having a conversation with your audience. It's hard, but it's rewarding. The upside of this new networked journalism is a new relationship between journalists and their audiences based on respect, which itself results in a more committed, more loyal readership. And with newspaper readerships falling, and broadcast audiences fragmenting, loyalty is more important than ever."
    • Google anuncia que venderá publicidad en 50 periódicos de Estados Unidos (Nov 6, 2006) Reuters en
    • 176 Newspapers to Form a Partnership With Yahoo (November 20, 2006) New York Times USA By Miguel Helft and Steve Lohr A consortium of seven newspaper chains representing 176 daily papers across the country is announcing a broad partnership with Yahoo to share content, advertising and technology, another sign that the wary newspaper business is increasingly willing to shake hands with the technology companies they once saw as a threat.
    • Yahoo se alía con 175 periódicos de todo EEUU para distribuir sus contenidos. Libertad Digital, 24, Nov. 2006
    • Lonelygirl15 (YouTube videos used by Hollywood. YouTube audience reaction: called her a fake and got angry)
    LonelyGirl15: YouTube videos used by Hollywood
    Lonelygirl15 lonely for home at
    Lonelygirl15: Prank, Art or Both New York Times, by Tom Zeller Jr. September 17, 2006
    Video of Creators of Lonelygirl15 interview on MTV added to YouTube on September, 15th. 2006.
    Feature: lonelygirl15: The Pleasures and Perils of Participation by Michael Z. Newman University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Flow Vol, 4. Issue 12 (September, 2006)

    Traditional Media & Google
    • AFP vs Google (2005)
      AFP: Google News' indexing boosts case. Continued indexing despite vow to stop could cost Google dearly, and AFP lawyer says By Juan Carlos Perez, IDG News Service (July 18, 2006) InfoWorld
    • Copiepresse vs Google (Bélgica)
    La justicia belga condena a Google a restringir su servicio de noticias (Setiembre 2006) El perió
    La justicia belga sentenció a favor de Copiepresse, la gestora de los derechos de editores belgas de prensa diaria que acusa a Google de difundir noticias sin su consentimiento.
    Los editores de periódicos belgas contra Google News
    Un tribunal belga ha ordenado a Google que cese la reproducción de artículos de periódicos belgas escritos en francés y alemán en su servicio Google News Belgique.
    Google Defies Order That It Publish Adverse Belgian Ruling By Eric Pfanner New York Times (September 23, 2006)
    Googler insights into product and technology news and our culture. About the Google News case in Belgium (9/25/2006)
    Posted by Rachel Whetstone, European Director of Communications and Public Affairs
    Editeurs belges :après Google, Microsoft

    Google Shift on Handling of News by Reuters on NYT September 1, 2007 The news agencies — the Press Association of Britain, Canadian Press, Agence France-Presse and The Associated Press- have agreed to license news feeds to Google.

    Copyright Crackdown: Coalitions, Aggregation, and Audiences by Eleanor Baird (October 24, 2007) In ten days: Viacom sued Google; Google announced a new service on YouTube to identify copyright violating video; media companies joined together -without Google- to block pirated material before it became accessible and take down other copyright infringing clips online; NBC pulled its YouTube channel.

    • Publishers Project to deal with "search engines". (September 22, 2006) Press Release by WAN:
      "In the week that the publishers of Le Soir and La Libre Belgique won their case in the Belgian Courts against Google for illegally publishing content on its news service without prior consent, the World Association of Newspapers (W.A.N.), the European Publishers Council (E.P.C.) the International Publishers Association (I.P.A.) and the European Newspapers Association (E.N.P.A), are preparing to launch a global industry pilot project that aims to avoid any future clash between search engines and newspaper, periodical, magazine and book publishers."
      The new project, ACAP (Automated Content Access Protocol), is an automated enabling system by which the providers of content published on the World Wide Web can systematically grant permissions information (relating to access and use of their content) in a form that can be readily recognised and interpreted by a search engine "crawler", so that the search engine operator (and ultimately, any other user) is enabled systematically to comply with such a policy or licence. Effectively, ACAP will be a technical solutions framework that will allow publishers worldwide to express use policies in a language that the search engine¹s robot "spiders" can be taught to understand."
    • YouTube erases clips per Japan media demand October 20, 2006. Cnet (via Carnet de Notes)
      Google's YouTube removed 29,549 video files from its popular Web site after receiving a demand from a group of Japanese media companies over copyright infringement, an industry group said on Friday.
    • YouTube and Brazil Sex Tape Leads to YouTube Shutdown Order from Brazil January 4, 2007 by Pete Cashmore at Mashable!
    • YouTube Blocked In Brazil. January 6, 2007 Pete Cashmore at Mashable! (Brasil Telecom blocked YouTube at DNS)

    Viejos medios en nuevos escenarios: quiénes van a sobrevivir en ecuaderno. J. L Orihuela (16, Dic. 2006)
    Media Giants Team On Content Piracy Measures by Gavin O'Malley (MediaPost Publications) Oct 19, 2007
    "Banded together by a mutual fear of Google and YouTube, a group of digital media heavyweights on Thursday issued a set of guidelines on copyright protection. The group--including Viacom, Walt Disney, Microsoft, News Corp's Fox and MySpace units, and General Electric's NBC Universal--agreed to the use of technology to purge pirated content circulating online, and to stop such material before it becomes widely available."

    About Business Models

    What are Governments doing? and IT Companies?

    • Seeking Leakers, Hewlett Packard Spied on Journalists. By Damon Darlin Published: September 7, 2006 New York Times."The California attorney general’s investigation into the purloining of private phone records by agents of Hewlett-Packard has revealed that the monitoring effort began earlier than previously indicated and included journalists as targets. The targets included nine journalists who have covered Hewlett-Packard, including one from The New York Times, the company said Thursday. The company said this week that its board had hired private investigators to identify directors leaking information to the press and that those investigators had posed as the board members themselves — a technique known as pretexting — to gain access to their personal phone records."
    • Apple vs Does Court decision protects from revealing confidential sources offline and online. Same rights to journalists and to people posting online.
    • Internet-censor world championship Reporters sans frontières Most of the world’s authoritarian regimes are trying to control what their citizens read and do online. They’re getter better and better at blocking “objectionable” material, usually with technology bought from US firms. China is far and away the world champion. But it’s felt the heat of competition in recent years. Each country in this far from complete list has its own style and tactics but they all have one purpose, to keep ahead of the game.
    • Resolution of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. A Motion to Object to the Bush Administration's Anti-Press Policies and Practices. Moved by Dr. David T.Z. Mindich, St. Michael's College. Passed: Aug. 4, 2006. AEJMC convention, San Francisco (at Jay Rosen Blog)
    • Search engines: FAQ: Protecting yourself from search engines. By Declan McCullagh at Cnet. AOL's publication of the search histories of more than 650,000 of its users should reinforce an important point: What you type in online may not be as private as you think.

    USA - UK
    New York Times bloquea la lectura de un articulo sobre terrorismo a los británicos 03/09/2006 - 22:35 NOTICIASDOT, IBLNEWS

    El Gobierno legislará para poder impedir el acceso a 'webs' ilegales alojadas en el extranjero. El País 05.09.2006
    El Gobierno podría bloquear el acceso desde España a determinadas webs internacionales 20MINUTOS.ES / EFE. 05.09.2006

    USA Net Neutrality
    • **Tim Berners-Lee: Net Neutrality: This is serious (June, 21. 2006)** "When I invented the Web, I didn't have to ask anyone's permission. Now, hundreds of millions of people are using it freely. I am worried that that is going end in the USA. I blogged on net neutrality before, and so did a lot of other people. Since then, some telecommunications companies spent a lot of money on public relations and TV ads, and the US House seems to have wavered from the path of preserving net neutrality. There has been some misinformation spread about. So here are some clarifications. Net neutrality is this: If I pay to connect to the Net with a certain quality of service, and you pay to connect with that or greater quality of service, then we can communicate at that level. That's all. Its up to the ISPs to make sure they interoperate so that that happens. (Go on reading at: )
    • Tim Berners-Lee: Neutrality of the Net at timbl's blog
    • Eric Schmidt: A Note to Google Users on Net Neutrality:

    Editorials on Net Neutrality (New York Times, Washington Post)
    • Why the Democratic Ethic of the World Wide Web May Be About to End by Adam Cohen. Editorial Observer New York Times. May 28, 2006 Telecommunications and cable companies want to impose a new system of fees that could create a hierarchy of Web sites. "Sir Tim (Berners-Lee) argues that service providers may be hurting themselves by pushing for tiered pricing. The Internet's extraordinary growth has been fueled by the limitless vistas the Web offers surfers, bloggers and downloaders. Customers who are used to the robust, democratic Web may not pay for one that is restricted to wealthy corporate content providers." (I first noticed about this article at Carnet de Notes)
    • No Tolls on The Internet Washington Post By Lawrence Lessig and Robert W. McChesney Thursday, June 8, 2006; Page A23
    • The Internet's Future. Washington Post Editorial Congress should stay out of cyberspace. Monday, June 12, 2006; Page A20

    USA **Net neutrality** rules **rejected**
    • "House Republican leadership mustered enough votes to reject a Democrat-backed amendment that would have enshrined stiff Net neutrality regulations into federal law and prevented broadband providers from treating some Internet sites differently from others." (June, 8, 2006)
    • Amendment Amendment rejected
    • Senate Committee Rejects Net Neutrality, and Why News Orgs Should Care E-Media Tidbits Poynter. Posted by Amy Gahran (June, 29, 2006)

    Information on Net neutrality:

    Special Section on Net Neutrality at International Journal of Communication Vol 1, 2007

    More on this issue:

    Other Point of View:

    China: Censorship and beyond
    Google, Microsoft
    Chinese authorities 'block' "the search engine became inaccessible throughout the country on May 31, and then blocking gradually extended to Google News and Google Mail." (June, 7, 2006)
    (To read on the subject: Andrew Lih
    The great firewall of China By Mark Oliver November, 29, 2006. The Guardian Blogs
    Fons Tuinstra at Poynter

    Brazil: Orkut/Google/YouTube
    Delitos en la red Orkut. Google accede a facilitar datos de usuarios a la Justicia brasileña. 05/09/2006 16:39 (CET) Reuters.
    Google to Give Data To Brazilian Court. Request Differs From U.S.'s, It Says By Ellen Nakashima Washington Post Staff Writer Saturday, September 2, 2006; Page D03
    YouTube Blocked In Brazil. January 6, 2007 Pete Cashmore at Mashable! (Brasil Telecom)
    ADSL users from BrT prevented from accessing YouTube January 6, 2007 O Blogue do Janio
    You Tube e Cicarelli at Carnet de Notes

    SaferNet Brasil is a non-profit, non-governmental organization which gathers computer scientists, teachers, researchers and lawyers, with the mission of defending and promoting the Human Rights on the Information Society in Brazil.

    USA: MySpace/DOPA

    Related to Orkut and MySpace, education is still a good anwser: Microsoft lidera iniciativa para educar internautas da América Latina para uma navegação seguraeven though when you click the first recommendation you get is "update your PC" to be safe:
    "Proteja seu computador e garanta a segurança de sua família:
    - atualize seu PC
    - SPAM e outras pragas
    - Fraude: não seja a próxima vítima"

    (27th July, 2006)
    United States cedes control of the internet - but what now? Review of an extraordinary meeting.The Register UK. By Kieren McCarthy
    "Having been the internet's instigator and, since 1998, its voluntary taskmaster, the US government finally agreed to transition its control over not-for-profit internet overseeing organisation ICANN, making the organisation a more international body."

    Or not...

    (August 16, 2006)
    Icann renews its deal to supervise Internet. International Herald Tribune. By Victoria Shannon.
    "The agency that supervises Internet domain names, Icann, has renewed its contract with an arm of the U.S. Department of Commerce to administer the technical workings of the global computer network."

    OpenNet Initiative In an effort to counter the once borderless Internet, states are seeking to create informational boundaries in cyberspace. This is accomplished through a combination of technical and regulatory means -- including laws, licensing regimes, industry self-regulation, national filtering, and content removal -- thereby creating a matrix of controls.
    The OpenNet Initiative is a partnership between the Citizen Lab at the Munk Centre for International Studies, University of Toronto, the Berkman Center for Internet & Society at Harvard Law School, the Advanced Network Research Group at the Cambridge Security Programme at Cambridge University, and the Oxford Internet Institute at the University of Oxford

    Amnisty International Global Campaing

    "About this Campaign:
    The web is a great tool for sharing ideas and freedom of expression. However, efforts to try and control the Internet are growing. Internet repression is reported in countries like China, Vietnam, Tunisia, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Syria. People are persecuted and imprisoned simply for criticising their government, calling for democracy and greater press freedom or exposing human rights abuses, online.
    But Internet repression is not just about governments. IT companies have helped build the systems that enable surveillance and censorship to take place. Yahoo! have supplied email users’ private data to the Chinese authorities, helping to facilitate cases of wrongful imprisonment. Microsoft and Google have both complied with government demands to actively censor Chinese users of their services.
    Freedom of expression is a fundamental human right. It is one of the most precious of all rights. We should fight to protect it."

    Amnistía Internacional lanza una campaña contra la censura en la Red La Nación Mayo 29, 2006.
    Amnesty International seeks to end Net repression By Reuters Published: May 28, 2006. at CNet

    Amnisty International Press Release (July, 20. 2006):
    Amnesty International launches global campaign against internet repression
    Following the success of the launch of its internet freedom campaign in the UK, Amnesty International is today going global with The campaign aims to claim back the web as a force for change in the face of an increasing willingness on the part of technology companies to aid censorship and repression.
    From Iran to the Maldives and Cuba to Vietnam, governments are both cracking down on those who use the internet to communicate their views and denying their citizens access to its wealth of information. Web users are locked up, internet cafes are shut down, chat rooms are policed and blogs deleted. Websites are blocked, foreign news banned, and search engines filter out sensitive results.
    "The internet can be a great tool for the promotion of human rights -- activists can tell the world about abuses in their country at the click of a mouse. People have unprecendented access to information from the widest range of sources," said Amnesty International.
    "But the internet's potential for change is being undermined -- by governments unwilling to tolerate this free media outlet, and by companies willing to help them repress free speech."
    Sun Microsystems, Nortel Networks, Cisco Systems, Yahoo! and Google are among those companies implicated in helping governments censor the internet or track down individual users. In 2004, Microsoft released information about nuclear whistleblower Mordechai Vanunu to the Israeli authorities without his knowledge or consent. The data was initially used to prosecute Vanunu for having contact with foreign media.
    "We are calling on internet users across the world to go to and sign a pledge calling on all governments and companies to respect internet freedom," said Amnesty International. "Internet companies often claim to be ethically responsible -- these pledges will highlight how their cooperation in repression risks making them complicit in human rights abuses and damages their credibility."
    The online pledges will be collected and presented to a key UN meeting on the future of the internet in November 2006.
    To coincide with the launch of the international campaign, Amnesty International is releasing a report about the role of Yahoo!, Microsoft and Google in internet repression in China. The apparatus of internet repression is considered to be more advanced in China than in any other country and companies are particularly willing to cooperate with the Chinese government.


    Castells, Manuel (août 2006). “Émergence des “médias de masse individuels”, Le Monde Diplomatique, Paris, n°629, pp.16-17 (to read...I found the reference at eCuaderno)

    Capitulation to capital? OhmyNews as alternative media. Eun-Gyoo Kim. Chungang University, Seoul. James W. Hamilton. University of Georgia, USA. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 541-560 (2006) SAGE Publications
    DOI: 10.1177/0163443706065028

    Researching media, democracy and participation. The intellectual work of the 2006 European media and communication doctoral summer school,’ edited by Nico Carpentier, Pille Pruulmann-Vengerfeldt, Kaarle Nordenstreng, Maren Hartmann, Peeter Vihalemm & Bart Cammaerts. It is the first publication in the new Researching and Teaching Communication Series.

    Changing Media Markets in Europe and Abroad – New Ways of Handling Information and Entertainment Content. Schorr, A., Seltmann, S. (Eds) October 2006