Abercrombie, N. & Longhurst, B. (1998). Audiences: a sociological theory of performance and imagination. London: SAGE Publications.

Alasuutari, P. (Ed.) (1999). Rethinking the media audience: the new agenda. University of Tampere, Finland. London: Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE.

Allen & Unwin. Dickinson, R., Harindranath, R. & Linne, O. (Eds.) (1998). Approaches to audiences: a reader. London; New York : Arnold; New York : Oxford University Press.

Antaki, Charles and Sue Widdicombe (eds., 1998): "Identities In Talk," London: Sage.

Barthes, R. (1988). Elements of semiology. New York: The Noonday Press. Carragee, K.M. (1990). Interpretive media study and interpretive social science. Critical Studies in Mass Communication 7(2), 81-96.

Briggs, A. Burke, P. De Gutenberg a Internet. Una historia social de los medios de comunicación. (2002) Taurus.

Callejo, Javier. (2001) Investigar las audiencias. Un análisis cualitativo. Barcelona, Paidós. Papeles de Comunicación 34.

Cavallo, Guglielmo; Chartier, Roger, y otros. Historia de la lectura en el mundo Occidental, Madrid, Santillana-Taurus, 1998. (1era. Edición 1997)

Curran, J. Morley, D. Alkerdine, V. (Comp) (1998) Estudios culturales y comunicación. Análisis, producción y consumo cultural de las políticas de identidad y el posmodernismo. Paidós.

Fiske, J. (1987). Television Culture. London: Methuen.

Fiske, J. (1989a). Understanding Popular Culture. London: Unwin Hyman.

Fiske, J. (1989b). Reading the Popular. London: Unwin Hyman.

Flichy, Patrice. Una historia de la comunicación moderna. Espacio público y vida privada. (1993) México. G. Gili.

Gillespie, Marie. ed. (2005) Media Audiences. Open University Press.

Gillmor, Dan. We the Media. Publisher O'Reilly (2004)

Gjedde, Lisa. Ingemann, Bruno. In the Beginning Was the Experience. The Experimental Reception Studies. Danish University of Education. Roskilde University, Nordicom, Research on Media & Communication 2.2001. December 2001.

Grimson, Alejandro. Varela, Mirta. Audiencias, cultura y poder. Estudios sobre la televisión, Eudeba, Buenos Aires, 1999.

Hermès 37. (2003) L'Audience. Presse, Radio, Télévision, Internet. CNRS Editions.

Jensen, K. B. (1986). Making Sense of the News: Towards a Theory and an Empirical Model of Reception for the Study of Mass Communication. Aarhus, Denmark: University of Aarhus Press.

Jensen, K.B. Rosengren, K.E. (1990) Cinco tradiciones en busca del público, European Journal of Communication. SAGE, Londres, vol, 5.

Jensen, K.B. (1991). When is meaning? Communication theory, pragmatism, and mass media reception. Communication Yearbook 14, 3-32.

Jensen, K. B. (Ed.). (1998). News of the World: World Cultures Look at Television News. London, New York: Routledge.

Jensen, J. F. (1999). Interactivity: Tracking a New Concept in Media and Communication Studies. In P. A. Mayer (Ed.), Computer Media and Communication: A Reader. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Kent, R. (Ed.) (1994). Measuring media audiences. London & New York: Routledge.

Kim, J. & Rubin, A.M. (1997). The variable influence of audience activity on media effects. Communication Research 24(2) April 1997, 107-135.

Mota Gomes, Itania Maria. (2004). Efeito e Reçepcão. A interpretação do processo receptivo em duas tradições de investigação sobre os media. Rio de Janeiro. e-papers.

Nightingale, V. El estudio de las audiencias. El impacto de lo real. Paidós Comunicación. Barcelona. 1996.

Schroder, Kim. Drotner, Kirsten. Kline, Steve. Murray, Catherine. (2003). Researching Audiences: a Practical Guide To Methods in Media Audience Analysis. Arnold Publishers. (Serie Arnold Publication, volume 38)

Recommended Texts by Media Literacy Clearinghouse:

The Audience Studies Reader, Will Brooker, Deborah Jermyn (Editors) Routledge.

Identifying Hollywood's Audiences: Cultural Identity & The Movies by Melvyn Stokes & Richard Maltby. Publisher: BFI

Media Institutions & Audiences: Key Concepts in Media Education, a new text by Nick Lacey (May 2002). Palgrave. Macmillan

The Televiewing Audience The Art and Science of Watching TV, Robert Abelman, David J. Atkin, Hampton Press

Television and New Media Audiences. Oxford Television Studies. Ellen Seiter

The Audience and Its Landscape, Lawrence Grossberg, Ellan Wartella (Editors), Westview Press.

In Front of the Children : Screen Entertainment and Young Audiences. London: BFI; Bazalgette, Cary & David Buckingham (Eds.) (1995)

Reading Audiences: Young People and the Media. David Buckingham. Manchester Univ. Press (1993)

Interpreting Audiences: The Ethnography of Media Consumption. London: Sage, Moores, Shaun (1993)

Remote Control Television: Television, Audiences and Cultural Power by Ellen Seiter, Hans Borchers, Gabriele Kreutzner, Eva-Marie Warth
Routledge (1991)

Consuming Audiences? Production and Reception in Media Research, Ingunn Hagen, Janet Wasko (editors) Hampton Press.


Aeron Davis City University, London Media effects and the question of the rational audience: lessons from the financial marketsMedia, C ulture & Society, Vol. 28, No. 4, 603-625 (2006) SAGE Publications
DOI: 10.1177/0163443706065035
"This article offers evidence for an alternative perspective on the media effects debate. Early work on media influence, be it conservative or critical, assumed a causal link between mass media and mass behaviour. In contrast, decades of effects and audience research has established the inadequacy of this ‘strong effects’ paradigm. The main thrust of this counter-research is the realization that audiences actively consume and use the media for self-serving purposes. The alternative perspective offered here comes from a study of elite fund managers, their communications and decision-making in the London Stock Exchange. The research findings suggest that such individuals do respond actively to media, but, collectively, the results can be both self-defeating and on a mass scale. That is, individuals do not have to be ignorant nor act irrationally to contribute to media-instigated, collective irrationality."

Downing, John D.H. The University of Texas at Austin. Audiences and Readers of Alternative Media: The Absent Lure of the Virtually Unknown. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 25, No. 5, 625-645 (2003). SAGE Publications
DOI: 10.1177/01634437030255004
Reasons for the virtual absence of research in this area are proposed, and contrasts between users of conventional media and alternative media audiences suggested, along with a political ethics of listening. Connections between social movements and alternative media uses are discussed, the interplay between political consciousness and alternative media use is examined, and social conditions in which the latter are responded to are explored. Finally, the variety of alternative media formats, genres and technologies is noted.

Ushering "Audience" Out: From Oration to Conversation. Anthony Paré. McGill University
"When Barthes announced the death of "the author," he was attempting to transfer attention and power to the reader. The "audience" may have to suffer a similar demise if we are ever to recognize the power of community."

Callejo, Javier. Audiencias activas: Una aproximación empírica en el nuevo sistema televisivo español. Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia (UNED)

David Gauntlett - Ten things wrong with the media 'effects' model
This article was published (as 'Ten things wrong with the "effects model"') in Roger Dickinson, Ramaswani Harindranath & Olga Linné, eds (1998), Approaches to Audiences – A Reader, published by Arnold, London.

Hill, Annette Big Brother: The Real Audience. University of Westminster, Northwick Park Campus. Television & New Media, Vol. 3, No. 3, 323-340 (2002) SAGE Publications
In this article, the author focuses on Big Brother in relation to audience attraction. I outline thecontext of factual entertainment and its audience, and the specific experience of watchingBig Brother. Seen in relation to factual entertainment as a whole, Big Brother is one of theleast popular examples of "documentary as diversion." Seen in relation to gamedocs, BigBrother is one of the most popular examples of new factual entertainment. The author'sresearch, which uses quantitative and qualitative audience studies, indicates that attractionto Big Brother is based on the social and performative aspects of the program. The focus onthe degree of actuality, on real people's improvised performances in the program, leads to aparticular viewing practice: audiences look for the moment of authenticity when real peopleare "really" themselves in an unreal environment. This, the author argues, is the popularity ofthe gamedoc, evident in its early incarnation, and writ large in Big Brother spin-offs and sub-sequentseries.

Rethinking Audiences for Cultural Industries: Implications for Canadian Research Liss Jeffrey (University of Toronto)
Within the broad theme of cultural development in an open economy, two models--market and public--are introduced to distinguish research approaches focused on economic or cultural aspects of audiences. Drawing on a review of Canadian and international research, this article identifies six fundamental questions raised over the past decade by institutional, commercial, and scholarly researchers. These questions concern the limitations of measurement techniques, current understanding of audience activity, fragmentation of the mass audience, search for a public calculus, new ethnographic approaches that emphasize the active nature of audiences, and posited linkage between media and cultural or national identity. The article concludes by briefly drawing out the implications for Canadian research of this worldwide rethinking of audiences for cultural industries. Further research is clearly indicated, and a combined market and public model approach is suggested.

The active pursuit of active viewers: directions in audience research.
Debra Clarke Trent University Fuente: Canadian Journal of Communication

The cultural imperalism thesis and qualitative audience research. Daniël Biltereyst
The cultural imperalism thesis and qualitative audience research -- more than revisionism and cultural populism? Daniël Biltereyst

Los estudios de recepción. María Corominas

Ethnicity and Cultural Difference: Some thematic and political issues on global audience research. Ramaswami Harindranath
Particip@tions Volume 2, Issue 2 (December 2005)

From couch potatoes to cybernauts? The expanding notion of Audience on TV Channels'. EUGENIA SIAPERA. University of Amsterdam new media & society© 2004 SAGE Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Vol6(2)
The new media rhetoric, with its emphasis on radical breaks from old media, often masks the degree to which continuity goes hand-in-hand with change. Moreover, the industry’s vision of convergence ignores the competing versions of, and struggles over, the digital future. Against this background, this article focuses on an inter-media site, broadcasters’ websites, seeks to identify the changes and continuities in the notion of the audience, and interprets these in the light of inter-media competition. Using a variant of discourse analysis, which makes hyperlinks its unit of analysis, this study has identified six understandings of the audience online: spectators, fans, consumers, citizens, students, and cybernauts. These reveal that television has merely expanded online, but not really changed its understandings of audiences, suggesting that in its struggle for dominance, television has chosen to stamp the internet with the televisual, rather than making full use of the internet’s potential.

From media audience to media public: a study of letters written in reaction to FDR’s fireside chats. David Michael Ryfe Middle Tennessee State University, USA. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 23, No. 6, 767-781 (2001) SAGE Publications

Audience inter/active: Interactive media, narrative control and reconceiving audience history. Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. new media & society. (2006) SAGE Publications.London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi. Vol8(1):139–158 [DOI: 10.1177/1461444806059922]

Aikat, Debashis 'Deb'. News on the Web: Usage Trends of an On-line Newspaper Convergence, Dec 1998; vol. 4: pp. 94-110 /content/short/4/4/94

Biltereyst, Daniel Qualitative Audience Research and Transnational Media Effects: A New Paradigm? European Journal of Communication, Jun 1995; vol. 10: pp. 245-270 /content/short/10/2/245

Briggs, Matt Beyond the audience: Teletubbies, play and parenthood European Journal of Cultural Studies, Nov 2006; vol. 9: pp. 441-460 /content/short/9/4/441

Bridget Griffen-Foley From Tit-Bits to Big Brother: A Century of Audience Participation in the Media. Media, Culture & Society, Vol. 26, No. 4, 533-548 (2004) DOI: 10.1177/0163443704044216
"The article argues that media producers have, for more than a century, been blurring the notion of the passive media consumer."

Carpentier, Nico. Managing Audience Participation: The Construction of Participation in an Audience Discussion Programme
European Journal of Communication, Jun 2001; vol. 16: pp. 209-232 /content/short/16/2/209

COBB, CATHY J. PATTERNS OF NEWSPAPER READERSHIP AMONG TEENAGERS. Communication Research, Apr 1986; vol. 13: pp. 299-326 /content/short/13/2/299

Cover, Rob. Audience inter/active: Interactive media, narrative control and reconceiving audience history New Media Society, Feb 2006; vol. 8: pp. 139-158 /content/short/8/1/139

Crook, Stephen. Television and Audience Activity: The Problem of the Television/Viewer Nexus in Audience Research
Journal of Sociology, Jan 1989; vol. 25: pp. 356-380 /content/short/25/3/356

Chitnis, Ketan S., Thombre, Avinash, Rogers, (late) Everett M., Singhal, Arvind, Sengupta, Ami (Dis)similar Readings: Indian and American Audiences' Interpretation of Friends International Communication Gazette, Apr 2006; vol. 68: pp. 131-145 /content/short/68/2/131

Davis, Aeron Media effects and the question of the rational audience: lessons from the financial markets Media Culture Society, Jul 2006; vol. 28: pp. 603-625 /content/short/28/4/603

Dohnalik, Jacek Uses and Gratifications of `Return to Eden' for Polish Viewers. European Journal of Communication, Sep 1989; vol. 4: pp. 307-328 /content/short/4/3/307

GARRAMONE, GINA M.AUDIENCE MOTIVATION EFFECTS: More Evidence Communication Research, Jan 1984; vol. 11: pp. 79-96 /content/short/11/1/79

Hearn, Greg. Active and Passive Conceptions of the Television Audience: Effects of a Change in Viewing Routine Human Relations, Oct 1989; vol. 42: pp. 857-875 /content/short/42/10/857

Jensen, Klaus Bruhn, Rosengren, Karl Erik. Five Traditions in Search of the Audience European Journal of Communication, Jun 1990; vol. 5: pp. 207-238 /content/short/5/2/207

Proulx, Serge, Raboy, Marc. Viewers on Television: Between Policy and Uses. Gazette, Aug 2003; vol. 65: pp. 331-346 /content/short/65/4-5/331

Livingstone, Sonia, Wober, Mallory, Lunt, Peter Studio Audience Discussion Programmes: An Analysis of Viewers' Preferences and Involvement. European Journal of Communication, Dec 1994; vol. 9: pp. 355-379 /content/short/9/4/355

Lull, James. Family Communication Patterns and the Social Uses of Television. Communication Research, Jul 1980; vol. 7: pp. 319-333. /content/short/7/3/319

McCain, Thomas. Patterns of Media Use in Europe: Identifying Country Clusters. European Journal of Communication, Jun 1986; vol. 1: pp. 231-250 /content/short/1/2/231

Roach, Colleen. Cultural imperialism and resistance in media theory and literary theory. Media Culture Society, Jan 1997; vol. 19: pp. 47-66 /content/short/19/1/47

ROGERS, EVERETT M., ZHAO, XIAOYAN, PAN, ZHONGDANG, CHEN, MILTON. THE BEIJING AUDIENCE STUDY Communication Research, Apr 1985; vol. 12: pp. 179-208 /content/short/12/2/179

Silverstone, Roger. From Audiences to Consumers: The Household and the Consumption of Communication and Information Technologies European Journal of Communication, Jun 1991; vol. 6: pp. 135-154 /content/short/6/2/135

Roscoe, Jane, Marshall, Harriette, Gleeson, Kate. The Television Audience:: A Reconsideration of the Taken-for-Granted Terms `Active', `Social' and `Critical' European Journal of Communication, Mar 1995; vol. 10: pp. 87-108 /content/short/10/1/87

Turow, Joseph Audience Construction and Culture Production: Marketing Surveillance in the Digital Age The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Jan 2005; vol. 597: pp. 103-121. /content/short/597/1/103

The Reception Study Society

interactive space for Transforming Audiences 2007 (papers and material) main website with static information about the conference

Reports, research

Global Entertainment and Media Outlook 2005-2009 de Price Waterhouse Coopers March, 2006.
Principales conclusiones resumidas por n-economía

Pew Internet & American Life Project Report: Online News. March, 2006.
For broadband internet users, online news is a more regular part of the daily news diet than is the local paper; it is nearly as much of a daily habit as is getting news from national TV newscasts and radio. For home dial-up users, however, online news is not as much an everyday activity.

Outsell, Inc. The Future Of News: Latest Reader Study Shows. February, 2006.
People age 50 and above are the strongest users of both print newspapers and TV for getting news and feature information.

NAA Article. Online Newspaper Viewership Rises
More than 55 million people visited newspaper Web sites in November, a 30 percent increase

8ª Encuesta AIMC a Usuarios de Internet en España. Febrero 2006
Estudio General de Medios (EGM) el uso de Internet en España.

Resumen general de resultados Encuesta General de Medios. España.
AIMC, febrero-noviembre 2005

Engaging the Ad-supported Media. Middletown Media Studies. January 2006.
"This report focuses on contextual elements of engagement for the major ad-supported media (magazines, newspapers, television, radio and web)"

Behaviors of the Blogosphere: Understanding the Scale, Composition and Activities of Weblog Audiences. August 2005.
Conducted by comScore Media Metrix

Related News

In This Movie, the Audience Picks the Scene. NYT. October,2, 2006. Using a new software program called NAV, viewers are constantly being presented with fresh links to click (some are highlighted to encourage heading in a particular direction, or a shuffle link can be selected) that serve as a departure point from one scene to the next.

Online news favoured by younger readers, BBC/Reuters study find Online Journalism News, May, 2006. "Websites are now the first destination for 19 per cent of readers aged 18 to 24 but just three per cent of those in the 55-to-64 age bracket, according to the study, published to coincide with the We Media conference in London on Tuesday and Wednesday".

Study: More readers turning to the Web for news
According to a study released Wednesday by the Pew Internet & American Life Project, more than 50 million Americans per day used the Internet as their primary news source in 2005. That's up from 27 million in 2002. In fact, checking the daily news is the third most popular activity on the Internet, the study found.

As Internet TV Aims at Niche Audiences, the Slivercast Is Born
the thousands of producers whose programming would never make it into prime time but who have very dedicated small audiences. It's a phenomenon that could be called slivercasting.

Las revistas se transforman en Internet para seducir al público joven

Los jóvenes españoles reducen su consumo televisivo en favor de Internet - Febrero 2006
Los jóvenes españoles tienden a reducir su consumo de televisión en favor de Internet y, en general, el tiempo de consumo de este medio es ya superior al empleado en la lectura de prensa diaria. Son datos del informe "Medios de Comunicación. Tendencia

35 % des internautes se contentent de Google News sans aller voir plus loin sur les sites d'information
Libération : La presse envoie sa fac