Searching a culture concept framework


What is culture? from Washington State University.
Authors: Eric Miraglia, Dept. of English/Student Advising and Learning Center; Dr. Richard Law, Director, General Education; Peg Collins, Information Technology, Learning Systems Group.

Agar, Michael. Culture: Can You Take It Anywhere? Invited Lecture Presented at the Gevirtz Graduate School of Education, University of California at Santa Barbara
International Journal of Qualitative Methods 5 (2) June 2006

Audio of the lecture A Question of Culture. This lecture took place on 07 March 2005.Hosted by Queen's University, Belfast (The British Academy)
"Culture seems to explain everything at the moment, the way gender once did, or, before that, class, or, a long time ago, race, or, even longer ago, destiny. A decade ago, Samuel Huntington warned that, in future, 'The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural.' According to one commentator after another, celebratory or indignant, every European country is multicultural. Is immigration policy a matter of dealing with cultural difference? Today, these debates are at their most acute as European countries shape policies on 'Muslim' minorities, and confront the intricate crises of the Middle East, and the challenge of terrorism."
This event took the form of a panel discussion between Professor Adam Kuper, FBA, Brunel University, Professor Fred Halliday, FBA, London School of Economics, and Professor Jytte Klausen, Brandeis University, USA.

Balkin, JM. (1998) Cultural Software: A Theory of Ideology. Yale University Press.

Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (1966). The Social Construction of Reality. London: Allen Lane.

Castells, Manuel. La era de la información. Economía, Sociedad y Cultura. La Sociedad Red, Vol I. México. Siglo XXI. 1999. (1ª Edición 1996)

Geertz, C. (1973) The interpretation of cultures. N.Y.: Basic.
"The concept of culture I espouse, and whose utility the essays [in this book] attempt to demonstrate, is essentially a semiotic one. Believing, with Max Weber, that man is an animal suspended in webs of significance he himself has spun. I take culture to be those webs, and the analysis of it to be therefore not an experimental science in search of law but an interpretive one in search of meaning." (p. 5 in Clifford Geertz, The Interpretation of Cultures, Basic Books, 1973.

Giddens, A. (1990). The Consequences of Modernity. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and Self-Identity. Self and Society in the Late Modern Age. Cambridge: Polity press.

Kuper, Adam. (2001) Cultura. La versión de los antropólogos. Paidós Básica. Barcelona. (1a edición 1999, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass. EE.UU)

Perceval, José María. Nacionalismos, xenofobia y racismo en la comunicación.Una perspectiva histórica.

New Technologies in Global Societies edited by Pui-Lam Law (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, China), Leopoldina Fortunati (University of Udine, Italy) & Shanhua Yang (Peking University, China) http://www.worldscibooks.com/general/6113.html

Cultural Studies e-archive

**Culture and Development**
Cyberlibrary of Books and Resources to Download at dgCulture and Development page

EFF's net.culture archives

**UNESCO’s Basic Texts on the Information Society**

Circuits of Culture

du Gay, P., S. Hall, L. James, H. Mackay and K. Negus (1997) Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman. London: Sage.
du Gay, P. and M. Pryke (eds) (2002) Cultural Economy: Cultural Analysis and Commercial Life. London: Sage
C. Lee Harrington and Denise D. Bielby. Constructing the popular: Cultural Production and Consumption
Doing Cultural Studies: The Story of the Sony Walkman (by Paul du Gay, Stuart Hall, Linda Janes, Hugh Mackay, and Keith Negus) by Rachel Ruben

Articles


Alvermann, Donna.Media, Information Communication.Technologies, and Youth Literacies. University of Georgia AMERICAN BEHAVIORAL SCIENTIST, Vol. 48 No. 1, September 2004 78-83 © 2004 Sage Publications
Everyday literacy practices are changing at an unprecedented pace, and speculation as to the impact of media and interactive communication technologies on current conceptions of youth’s reading, writing, and viewing is evident on many fronts. The implications of this for teacher educators and classroom teachers are discussed. DONNA E. ALVERMANN is Distinguished Research Professor of Reading Education at the University of Georgia.

Barbero, Jesús Martín.Cultural Change.The Perception of the Media and the Mediation of Its Images. Television & New Media Vol. 4 No. 1, February 2003 85-106 © 2003 Sage Publications
In this article, the author analyzes cultural changes introduced by modernization in Colombia and their link to the development of media as a constitutive element in the country’s transformation. He does so by studying the results of a research project that involved interviews with “mediators” of society —social science researchers, artists, writers, people working in communications, designers, high school teachers— regarding the presence of “the cultural” in newspapers, radio, and television. He investigates the transformations that the very notions of culture and the cultural are currently undergoing in the agenda and discursive formats of mass media and their relation to innovations in both policy making and technology.
Cultural Change, Perceptions of Media.

Bustamante, Enrique Cultural industries in the digital age: some provisional conclusions. Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Media, Culture & Society © 2004 SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi), Vol. 26(6): 803–820
This study is based on the analysis of the seven main sectors – both in terms of political importance and of social influence – of contemporary culture and communication. It addresses the following: books, disks, cinema, the press, radio, television and the video games industry.
The work addresses three main cross-cutting problematics that are considered to be crucial: intellectual property rights; the strategies of transnational multimedia groups; and the development of communication and cultural policies and their evolution in both the analogue and digital worlds
The framework that traditionally unified this apparently diverse group of elements was the concept of the ‘cultural industries’, which is still useful for analysing the transformations and the most important tendencies of the last decade. It is assumed that the future of our culture cannot escape from being determined by the evolution of the ‘old’ analogue world, and particularly by three main interrelated processes that have produced important changes in the cultural industries during the past few decades: Deregulation, Concentration, Globalization of forms and principles of management.

Castells, Manuel. Information Technology, Globalization and Social Development.
Professor of Sociology, and Professor of City and Regional Planning, University of California, Berkeley
The world is in the midst of a historical transformation at the turn of the millennium. Like all major transformations in history, it is multidimensional: technological, economic, social, cultural, political, geopolitical. Yet, in the end, what is the real meaning of this extraordinary mutation for social development, for people’s lives and well being? And is there a shared meaning for everyone, or must we differentiate people in terms of their specific relationship to the process of social change? If so, what are the criteria for such a differentiation?

danah boyd (March 6, 2006) "G/localization: When Global Information and Local Interaction Collide" at O'Reilly Emerging Technology Conference
danah boyd, 2007 "Choose Your Own Ethnography: In Search of (Un)Mediated Life." Paper presented at 4S, Montreal, Canada, October 13.


Fisher , Michael MJ. Culture and Cultural Analysis. Theory, Culture & Society Vol. 23, 360-364. (2006) SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi).

Gauntlett, David **Web Studies 2nd Edition, 2004. Introduction.**
Gauntlett, David **WebStudies. Introduction to the first edition**.

Haddon, L., Wajcman, J. Technology, time and everyday life. Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford. Forum Discussion Paper No. 7 November 2005

**Hesmondhalgh, David. The Open University, UK. Bourdieu, the media and cultural production.** Media, Culture & Society © 2006 SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi), Vol. 28(2): 211–231 [ISSN: 0163-4437 DOI: 10.1177/0163443706061682]

Hutnyk, John. Culture. Theory, Culture & Society, Vol. 23, No. 2-3, 351-358 (2006) SAGE Publications (London, Thousand Oaks and New Delhi),
DOI: 10.1177/0263276406062700

Jenkins, Henry .The cultural logic of media convergence. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA International journal of Cultural Studies Copyright © 2004 SAGE Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi Volume 7(1): 33–43
Responding to the contradictory nature of our current moment of media change, this article will sketch a theory of media convergence that allows us to identify major sites of tension and transition shaping the media environment for the coming decade. Media convergence is more than simply a technological shift. Convergence alters the relationship between existing technologies, industries, markets, genres and audiences.
HENRY JENKINS is the director of the comparative media studies program and holds the John E. Burchards chair in the humanities at MIT. He is the author or editor of nine books, including Textual Poachers: Television Fans and Participatory Culture and Hop on Pop: The Politics and Pleasures of Popular Culture. He is currently writing a book examining how media convergence and collective intelligence are impacting contemporary popular culture. Address: Department of Literature, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts venue, Cambridge, MA 02139–4307, USA. [email: henry3@mit.edu]
Convergence, Culture Studies.

Jensen, Klaus Bruhn. **From Media History to Communication History Three Comparative Perspectives on the Study of Culture**. Nordicom Review 1-2/2002. Special Issue: The 15th Nordic Conference on Media and Communication Research Editor: Ulla Carlsson 2002, 357 p., (Nordicom Review; 1-2) - ISSN 0349-6244
"media and communication research is poised to take a central role in a redefinition of the study of communication and culture."

Kenichi Ishiia, and Chyi-In Wub. **A comparative study of media cultures among Taiwanese and Japanese youth** Graduate School of Systems and Information Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573, Japan Institute of Sociology, Academia Sinica, 128. Sec 2, Academia Road, Nankang, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC Telematics and Informatics, Volume 23, Issue 2, May 2006, Pages 95-116
**http://dx.doi.org** doi:10.1016/j.tele.2005.05.002
This study used nation-wide surveys to explore how different media usage patterns were shaped in Taiwan and Japan. Taiwanese youth use the Internet to a much greater extent than Japanese youth, even though broadband services are cheaper and faster in Japan. Japanese youth use text-messaging services featured on mobile phones more than their Taiwanese counterparts. Since the 1980s, Taiwan has witnessed the development of a unique BBS (bulletin board system) culture, and this culture has led the Taiwanese to have a comparatively stronger degree of trust in the Internet than the Japanese. The Internet culture in Japan is more individualized. Japanese adolescents and young adults tend to avoid direct communication, resulting in the promotion of a unique mobile media culture among the Japanese youth. The findings discussed here suggest that, despite the worldwide standardization of communication technologies, the culturally different personal relationship patterns in the two countries studied have created different media trends for their youth.

Landry, Charles.****Culture as a vehicle of change**** outcome of an independent study commissioned by Pro Helvetia and the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) According to the study findings, cultural work strengthens diversity of opinion and promotes debate on socially relevant topics, besides helping to create alternative structures and networks and facilitating participation in political life. It also releases creative energy and triggers fresh stimuli. In a nutshell, it reinforces civil society and – indirectly – what are often still very fragile democratic institutions.

Lemos, André Cyberculture Articles. Books and Essays.

Meehan, Eileen R. Culture: Text or Artifact or Action?Journal of Communication Inquiry 25:3 (July 2001): 208-217. 2001. Sage Publications.
Eileen R. Meehan is an associate professor in the Department of Media Arts and an affiliated faculty member in the Graduate Interdisciplinary Programin Comparative Cultural and Literary Studies at the University of Arizona. She is a coeditor of Dazzled by Disney and Sex and Money.
(Culture, Culture Studies)
Critics to the reading metaphor that is used in media research, particularly in cultural studies. She argues that cultural studies has been reduced to literary textual analysis and says that we need to understand cultural competences. Finally, Meehan proposes a definition of culture focused on peoples’ actions and artifacts: “culture, then, becomes what peopledo to express meaning—the encoding and decoding that produces artifacts
and renders meanings accessible—as well as the social, political, and economic contexts in which people act and which shape people’s expressions. Perhaps, what we really need now is a labor theory of culture.”

**Sidekum, Antônio . Multiculturalismo. Desafíos para la educación en América Latina**
(...)"La filosofía intercultural, en virtud de su método hermenéutico, para una plenitud de alcance del sentido del ethos cultural, coloca en cuestionamiento la perspectiva de la unidimensionalidad y de la unidireccionalidad de nuestra experiencia histórica y en el cuestionamiento radical derivado de la unilateralidad de la concepción moderna a partir de la absolutización del poder del saber y del poder tecnológico, del cual el hombre moderno se apodero. Mircea Eliade 10 apunta así, para un redimensionamiento de las múltiples etapas de la cosmovisión humana. No se trataría apenas de los variados estadios del proceso civilizador, según Darcy Ribeiro, mas, por un lado, desarrollado a partir de la dimensión del concepto de cultura como síntesis, desarrollado por Norbert Elias o en Alejandro Serrano Caldera y por otro lado, por el sincretismo y por la síntesis reclamados por la filosofía intercultural."(...)


Sassi, Sinikka. Cultural differentiation or social segregation? Four approaches to the digital divide. . University of Helsinki, Finland. new media & society © 2005 SAGE Publications, London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi. Vol7(5):684–700
This article analyses some of the contradictions of contemporary technological society through the term ‘digital divide’ and the societal consequences predicted by this development. It briefly examines the history of communication technology in the 1970s, when a lively debate about the new information and communication order and the unbalanced diffusion of mass media took place. The many views on the ‘digital divide’ are presented here as four distinct approaches differing from each other in context and definition: the technocratic approach; the social structure approach; the information structure and exclusion approach; and modernization and capitalism. The main characteristics of these discourses are explained and evaluated. The role of the information technologies in contemporary societies is briefly discussed and a tentative
conclusion drawn on the issue of cultural differentiation as against social segregation in a context of a technologically advanced Nordic country. In conclusion, a few ideas concerning the adoption and use of the internet in a given locality are given.
SINIKKA SASSI is a professor of online communication at the University of Helsinki.sinikka.sassi@helsinki.fi

Silver,David. **Introducing Cyberculture Looking Backwards, Looking Forward: Cyberculture Studies** 1990-2000 © , Department of Communication, University of Washington.Originally published in Web.studies: Rewiring Media Studies for the Digital Age, edited by David Gauntlett (Oxford University Press, 2000): 19-30.
While still an emerging field of scholarship, the study of cyberculture flourished throughout the last half of the 1990s, as witnessed in the countless monographs and anthologies published by both academic and popular presses, and the growing number of papers and panels presented at scholarly conferences from across the disciplines and around the world. Significantly, the field of study has developed, formed, reformed, and transformed, adding new topics and theories when needed, testing new methods when applicable.
In an attempt to contextualize the chapters found in this volume, this essay traces the major works of scholarship on cyberculture from the last ten years, seen in three stages or generations. The first stage, popular cyberculture, is marked by its journalistic origins and characterized by its descriptive nature, limited dualism, and use of the Internet-as- frontier metaphor. The second stage, cyberculture studies, focuses largely on virtual communities and online identities and benefits from an influx of academic scholars. The third stage, critical cyberculture studies, expands the notion of cyberculture to include four areas of study -- online interactions, digital discourses, access and denial to the Internet, and interface design of cyberspace -- and explores the intersections and interdependencies between any and all four domains


Toward a more interpretative communication research 'framework': television as a cultural system. An interpretation of Clifford Geertz. Jan Servaes & Rico Lie University of South Africa. Communicatio 22(1) Unisa Press, University of South Africa. 1996
The world today is in a state of turmoil. Such an opening statement hardly surprises anyone any more. This 'crisis' also affects the discussion in the scientific field. Today's social sciences appear more interested in the impact and effects of aspects of the so-called 'superstructure' of society than in previous times. Though most social scientists reckon that the concepts of power, culture and ideology are essential for an understanding of the social reality, the concepts are often not defined and therefore interpreted in different ways. This is mainly because of the multidimensionality of these concepts. Thus this article focuses on these important concepts in view of new sociocultural and anthropological interpretations of their use in intercultural and cross-cultural communication research.
In Servaes (1989b) we briefly discussed definitions of power, ideology, and culture that contribute to this new interpretation of the superstructure. We particularly focused on the German scholar Jurgen Habermas's contributions. In this article, building on Clifford Geertz's interpretive anthropology, we attempt to outline the framework for a more hermeneutic-interpretative approach for the study of communication and socio-cultural change. Following Geertz's interests in 'religion', 'art' and 'common sense' as cultural systems, we will take a closer look at 'television as a cultural system'.

Defining Behavior, Designing Technology. Research@Intel Day: Join PodTech’s Michael Johnson as he talks with researchers, anthropologists, and product designers who have traveled the world on a mission to learn how people define a sense of place, and how they interact with technology at home and on the road (June, 2006) Podcast

The Sociology of Culture in Computer-Mediated Communication: An Initial Exploration (April,1994) by Elizabeth Lane Lawley
Bourdieu's theories applied to the study of CMC and related information networks
[Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for LS695 Seminar in Research Design]

Global Social. Anne Kirah: When culture meets technology and when technology meets culture (presentation)
The Social Computing Symposium 2005, sponsored by Microsoft Research

Growing Up in Technological Worlds: How Modern Technologies Shape the Everyday Lives of Young People Claus J. Tully. German Youth Institute. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 23, No. 6, 444-456 (2003) DOI: 10.1177/0270467603260812 © 2003 SAGE Publications (wish list)

Profiling "New" Communication Technologies In Adolescence. Crispin Thurlow. Cardiff University. Susan McKay. University of Queensland. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 1, 94-103 (2003) DOI: 10.1177/0261927X02250060 © 2003 SAGE Publications (wish list)
In an overview of some of the central issues concerning the impact and effects of new technology in adolescence, this article questions the reality of the "net generation" before considering the interplay of new and old technologies, the internet as both communication and lifestyle resource, and newer technologies like text messaging and webcams.

Young people and the Internet. From theory to practice. Lisa Lee. University of Edinburgh, UK. Young, Vol. 13, No. 4, 315-326 (2005)
DOI: 10.1177/1103308805057050 © 2005 Tidskriftforeningen YOUNG, SAGE Publications (wish list)

The Domestication of New Technologies as a Set of Trials.Turo-Kimmo Lehtonen.University of Helsinkituro. Journal of Consumer Culture, Vol. 3, No. 3, 363-385 (2003) DOI: 10.1177/14695405030033014. © 2003 SAGE Publications (wish list)

Facsimile. A forgotten ‘new medium’ from the 20th century. Jennifer S. Light. Northwestern University, USA, light@northwestern.edu
"Scholars have expressed increasing interest in understanding the conceptual and technological roots of contemporary new media. Yet, to date, accounts of the history of media technologies have ignored the rise, fall, and transformation of one innovation whose applications in the first half of the 20th century parallel recent developments in WiFi internet, mobile telephony, telework, telemedicine, online publishing, and video-on-demand. This article introduces scholars to the history of the fax machine, and suggests how the technology provides an important comparison point for analyzing technological developments, past and present. The conclusion explores how positioning this innovation more prominently within the common disciplinary wisdom about the rise of new media opens a door for scholars to deliberate about the historiographical boundaries of the ‘old media studies’ in the era of new media: what technological systems have received disproportionate attention, and what new histories of old media might be written."

**Convención sobre la protección y promoción de la diversidad de las expresiones culturales. Unesco** Definiciones que incluye el documento:
"A efectos de la presente Convención:
1. Diversidad cultural
La “diversidad cultural” se refiere a la multiplicidad de formas en que se expresan las culturas de los grupos y sociedades. Estas expresiones se transmiten dentro y entre los grupos y las sociedades. La diversidad cultural se manifiesta no sólo en las diversas formas en que se expresa, enriquece y transmite el patrimonio cultural de la humanidad mediante la variedad de expresiones culturales, sino también a través de distintos modos de creación artística, producción, difusión,
distribución y disfrute de las expresiones culturales, cualesquiera que sean los medios y tecnologías utilizados.
2. Contenido cultural
El “contenido cultural” se refiere al sentido simbólico, la dimensión artística y los valores culturales que emanan de las identidades culturales o las expresan.
3. Expresiones culturales.
Las “expresiones culturales” son las expresiones resultantes de la creatividad de personas, grupos y sociedades, que poseen un contenido cultural.
4. Actividades, bienes y servicios culturales
Las “actividades, bienes y servicios culturales” se refieren a las actividades, los bienes y los servicios que, considerados desde el punto de vista de su calidad, utilización o finalidad específicas, encarnan o transmiten expresiones culturales, independientemente del valor comercial que puedan tener. Las actividades culturales pueden constituir una finalidad de por sí, o contribuir a la producción de bienes y servicios culturales.
5. Industrias culturales
Las “industrias culturales” se refieren a todas aquellas industrias que producen y distribuyenbienes o servicios culturales, tal como se definen en el párrafo 4 supra.
6. Políticas y medidas culturales
Las “políticas y medidas culturales” se refieren a las políticas y medidas relativas a la cultura, ya sean éstas locales, nacionales, regionales o internacionales, que están centradas en la cultura como tal, o cuya finalidad es ejercer un efecto directo en las expresiones culturales de las personas, grupos o sociedades, en particular la creación, producción, difusión y distribución de las actividades y los bienes y servicios culturales y el acceso a ellos.
7. Protección
La “protección” significa la adopción de medidas encaminadas a la preservación, salvaguardia y enriquecimiento de la diversidad de las expresiones culturales.
“Proteger” significa adoptar tales medidas.
8. Interculturalidad
La “interculturalidad” se refiere a la presencia e interacción equitativa de diversas culturas y la posibilidad de generar expresiones culturales compartidas, adquiridas por medio del diálogo y de una actitud de respeto mutuo.


Culture & Time


Network Time and the New Knowledge Epoch. Robert Hassan. Institute for Social Research, Swinburne University, Melbourne, Australia. Time & Society, Vol. 12, No. 2-3, 225-241 (2003) DOI: 10.1177/0961463X030122004 © 2003 SAGE Publications (wish list)
"The article concludes that the spread of network time into the realm of the everyday has profound implications for the production of critical and reflexive knowledge in contemporary culture and society."

Technology, time and everyday life Judy Wajcman and Leslie Haddon Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford. Forum Discussion Paper No. 7 Oxford Internet Institute University of Oxford 1 St Giles, Oxford OX1 3JS United Kingdom November 2005
http://www.oii.ox.ac.uk/resources/publications/FD7.pdf

Time and space in cyber social reality. Stime Gotved. University of Copenhagen, Denmark. new media & society Vol8(3):467–486 (2006) SAGE Publications London, Thousand Oaks, CA and New Delhi. [DOI: 10.1177/1461444806064484]
"This article synthesizes a range of sociological views on time and space, and presents a departure point for future research on cyber social reality. Using basic sociological categories of culture, structure, and interaction, the cyber social reality is drawn into a matrix that further illustrates the embeddedness in technology, time, and space. The matrix is a theoretically and empirically grounded tool for exploring, describing, analyzing, and comparing the variety existing within online communities and communication. In the article, the matrix is illustrated step by step to show its inherent dimensions, and in conclusion it is proposed to be a useful systematic for, on the one hand, ensuring ethnographically thick descriptions ofonline social life, and on the other, comparing the various reality constructions found."

Numbers!
Yutaka Nishiyama, Osaka University of Economics. A Study of Odd- and Even-Number Cultures. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society, Vol. 26, No. 6, 479-484 (2006) SAGE Publications
DOI: 10.1177/0270467606295408


Frameworks and Individual Cultural Activities Four typical profile by Michelle Bergadaà. HEC, University of Geneva, Michelle.Bergadaa@hec.unige.ch Temporal s Time & Society, Vol. 16, No. 2-3, 387-407 (2007) SAGE DOI: 10.1177/0961463X07080274
The following article presents temporal frameworks articulated around two axes: synchrony/diachrony and instant/ duration. A framework is elaborated based on an analysis of how cultural activities bearing social and historical meaning fit into temporal frameworks on the individual level of consumers, or cultural actors. The argument identifies four types of time frames supporting individual action: `permanent present' frame, `modern time' frame, `fragmented time' frame and `in rhythm time' frame. Two studies, conducted on the topic of cultural activities involving theatre and museums, have been used to illustrate the conceptual model. They exemplify the relationship between the individual's temporal framework, his or her attitude with regard to culture and the type of cultural action he or she develops.

Reading Time — Text, Image, Film by Sabine Gross. Time & Society, Vol. 1, No. 2, 207-222 (1992) SAGE DOI: 10.1177/0961463X92001002005
Different visual media present information to the reader's eye in different ways. Reading is a temporal process in which the spectator's physiological and cognitive activity is affected by the way the respective sign systems operate. Beyond the specificity of the different media, texts, pictorial images and motion pictures are similar in offering spatial information which is translated into time in the act of reading. It is shown that the activity of the reader dissolves oppositions such as seeing vs reading and space vs time. For all three media, viewing and reading, perception and decoding are complementary rather than mutually exclusive, and the spectator/reader employs both.